COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES

What are the common complications of diabetes?

Over a time, diabetes increases your risk for many serious health problems. However, with the correct treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications.

Short-term or acute complications also known as diabetes emergencies include very low blood sugars levels or hypoglycemia and complications related to sudden and very high blood glucose like diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS).

Whereas, long-term or chronic complications of diabetes includes microvascular complications which can damage small blood vessels of the body like eyes, kidney and nerve disease. And, macrovascular or large blood vessels disease can damage to heart, brain and blood vessels periphery like legs, feet and arms. With time, diabetes can also affect other organs of the body like skin, mouth, digestive system and sexual organs.

Short-term Complications or Diabetes Emergencies


  • What is hypoglycemia?
  • What are the common symptoms of hypoglycemia?
  • How to be sure that one is having a hypoglycaemic episode?
  • Does eating cakes/brownies or chocolate help solve hypoglycemia?
  • How can hypoglycemia be managed or treated?
  • What should be done if one has frequent and severe hypoglycaemia despite medication adjustments?
  • How can hypoglycaemia be prevented?
  • What is Diabetes Ketoacidosis (DKA)?
  • What is Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome (HHS)?
What is hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycaemia occurs when blood sugar drops below normal levels or below 70 mg/dL. It often happens suddenly. If left untreated, episodes can get worse and lead to seizures, coma, and even death.

What are the possible causes of hypoglycemia?

Although, hypoglycemia can happen to anyone with diabetes. But most common causes are:

  • Inadequate meal or snack
  • Delayed or skipped meal
  • More activity than usual (without adjusting food and medications)
  • Over medication insulin or oral pills
  • Alcohol consumption without or insufficient food
What are the common symptoms of hypoglycemia?

In early stages of hypoglycemia one can feel all, some or in some cases none of these signs and symptoms like sweating, shaking, fast heartbeat, dizziness, anxiety, hunger, blurred vision, weakness, headache, nervousness, tingling sensation around mouth or irritation. Night time symptoms may include damp sheets or bedclothes due to perspiration, nightmares, crying out during sleep, tiredness, irritability or confusion upon waking.

As hypoglycemia worsens, signs and symptoms may include clumsiness or jerky movements, muscle weakness, personality change, irritability, confusion, poor coordination, difficulty in concentrating, slurred or slow speech. If the low sugar reaction is not treated, and the blood glucose levels continues to fall, one may pass out or develop convulsions.

How to be sure that one is having a hypoglycaemic episode?

Checking blood sugar is the only way to know for sure that someone is having a hypoglycemic episode. Sometimes, even though one may have signs of hypoglycemia, they may be caused by another condition; so, if possible, always check the blood sugar before assuming that hypoglycemia is the cause of the symptoms.

Does eating cakes/brownies or chocolate help solve hypoglycemia?

Usually people think that the best way to increase blood sugar is to eat something very sweet: chocolate, cake, brownies or pastries. This is not the case as complex carbohydrates, fat present in such food is absorbed very slowly in the blood. So try to eat some simple form of carbs which quickly digest and absorb in the body and normalize sugar levels before they get too low such as sugar, glucose, regular cold-drink or fruit juice.

How can hypoglycemia be managed or treated?

Hypoglycaemia can be treated in 4 simple steps:

Step 1 – Check your blood sugar if possible, and if blood sugars are below 70 mg/dl, eat or drink 15 grams of quick-acting carbohydrate immediately e.g. 15-gm or 3tsp of sugar/glucose powder, 3–4 glucose tablets / glucose candy, 1/2 cup fruit juice or 1/2 cup regular soda (choose any 1 option).

Step 2 – Wait for 15-20 minutes and check blood sugar levels again, as it takes at least 15 minutes to feel better and blood sugars to become normal again. Make sure! You TREAT but don’t OVER-TREAT.

Step 3 – If blood sugar are still low (<70 mg/dl), or if you still have symptoms, repeat steps 1 through 3.

Step 4 – As blood glucose may drop even after treatment. That is why all treatment of hypoglycemia should be followed by the next meal or snack.

Note: In case of EMERGENCY; when person is unconscious then one should be treated with a Glucagon injection immediately, OR call local emergency medical services.

What should be done if one has frequent and severe hypoglycaemia despite medication adjustments?

In such case, doctor must be consulted, he may recommend a higher glucose goal range and prescribe glucagon (a hormone that causes blood glucose to rise) emergency kit. It contains one dose that has to be mixed before injecting. One should store the glucagon at room temperature and be aware of the expiration date. If the person is unconscious, someone should know how to give the injection. After receiving Glucagon, one should eat as soon as awake and are able to swallow. If you don’t respond within 15 minutes, you need emergency medical care.

How can hypoglycaemia be prevented?

Hypoglycaemia can be prevented by following some simple steps:

  • Always carry diabetes ID, so that in an emergency others will know that you have diabetes
  • Avoid skipping or delaying meals
  • Monitor blood sugar more often and discuss readings with the doctor
  • Take your medications as advised
  • Always be prepared keep quick-acting foods or drinks, glucagon injection kit handy
  • If you are more active than usual than monitor your sugars more frequently and eat accordingly
  • Limit alcohol intake, NEVER drinks without food
  • Be aware, learn and record what triggers hypoglycemia in your case and discuss with your doctor
What is Diabetes Ketoacidosis (DKA)?

Diabetes Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition of diabetes develops over a period of time (few days) and required prompt medical attention. It is characterized by high blood sugars over 240 mg/dl. It occurs when not enough insulin is available in the body to break down glucose for energy or it is also be triggered by infections or other illness. So in absence of insulin, the body breaks down fat instead, for energy results in the build-up of harmful waste products called ketones in the blood which could be life-threatening if not treated. Common symptoms may include thirst, frequent urination, nausea, abdominal pain, weakness, fruity-scented breath and confusion.

What is Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome (HHS)?

HHS is a serious condition most frequently seen in older persons with type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by high blood sugars over 600 mg/dl. It may take days or even weeks to develop. It usually occurs in response to some illness or infection. It involves extremely high blood sugar (glucose) levels but without the presence of ketones. If HHS continues, the severe dehydration will lead to seizures, coma and eventually death. Symptoms usually includes dry and parched mouth, extreme thirst, high fever, sleepiness or confusion, weakness and lethargy, hallucinations, or weight loss.


Long-term Complications of Diabetes


DIABETES AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE


  • How diabetes is related with heart disease?
  • What are the risk factors for heart disease?
  • What are sign and symptoms of heart or cardiovascular disease?
  • How one can know or diagnose cardiovascular disease?
  • How one can lower the risk for heart disease in spite of diabetes?
How diabetes is related with heart disease?

Heart disease and blood vessel disease are common problems for many people with uncontrolled diabetes. People with diabetes are at least twice as likely to have heart problems and strokes and ten times likelier to have amputations (surgical removal of limb) as those without the disease. High blood sugars damages blood vessels through a process called “atherosclerosis”, or clogging of arteries. This narrowing of arteries can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) which means decreased blood flow to heart muscle (causing a heart attack), or to brain (leading to stroke). It also reduce blood flow to the extremities leading to pain and decreased healing of infections which is known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD).

What are the risk factors for heart disease?

The risk factors for heart disease are:

  • Family history of heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Overweight or obesity
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Smoking doubles your risk of getting heart disease
  • Abnormal blood fat (cholesterol) levels; high triglycerides and LDL (bad) cholesterol or low HDL (good) cholesterol levels

What are sign and symptoms of heart or cardiovascular disease?

The symptoms vary depending on the type of heart disease. For many people, chest discomfort or tightness can be seen. However, due to diabetes-related nerve damage some people with diabetes may not have classic symptoms like pain or discomfort in the chest and have SILENT heart disease. Other possible symptoms of heart attack can be shortness of breath, nausea and extreme fatigue, dizziness, weakness or pain in extremities or neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen or back.

Where symptoms of stroke may include trouble walking, speaking and understanding, as well as paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg.

How one can know or diagnose cardiovascular disease?

A doctor will perform a series of tests and evaluations to check for heart disease. Initially a risk assessment is done by knowing the risk factors involved like family history of heart disease, personal smoking history, weight, blood pressure and a blood lipid profile to assess the cholesterol levels. To confirm a suspected diagnosis, one may be referred for more tests including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram (ECG or EKG), treadmill or exercise stress tests, cardiac catheterization, CT scan, MRI or a chest X-ray. A doctor will suggest or customise the tests according to person’s condition and requirement.

How one can lower the risk for heart disease in spite of diabetes?

A heart or cardiovascular disease can be prevented by:

  • Keeping strict control over blood sugars and maintaining HbA1C levels below 7%.
  • Reaching and maintaining a healthy body weight.
  • Staying physically active by doing 30-60 minutes of physical activity every day.
  • Following a heart friendly diet having foods rich in fiber, omega 3 fats, mono and polyunsaturated fats and low in sugars, trans and saturated fats and refined foods.
  • Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol intake.
  • Being aware of subtle symptoms of heart disease and get routine check-up as advised.


DIABETES AND KIDNEY DISEASE


  • How diabetes affect kidney function and related to kidney disease?
  • What are common risk factors for developing kidney disease?
  • What are the common sign and symptoms of kidney disease (nephropathy)?
  • How one can know or diagnose kidney disease?
  • How to prevent kidney disease if someone is having diabetes?
How diabetes affect kidney function and related to kidney disease?

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease also called “diabetes nephropathy”. About 1 out of 4 adults with diabetes has kidney disease. High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels or filters of the kidneys. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which further damage the kidneys. Failing kidneys lose their ability to filter out waste products, resulting in kidney disease.

What are common risk factors for developing kidney disease?

Some common risk factors of nephropathy or diabetes kidney disease are:

  • Are 65 years and above
  • High blood pressure
  • Chronically elevated blood sugar levels
  • Have a family member who has chronic kidney disease
  • African American, Hispanic American, Asian, Pacific Islander or American Indian ethnicity
What are the common sign and symptoms of kidney disease (nephropathy)?

The early stages of kidney damage often do not cause noticeable symptoms. One may not experience any symptoms until your kidney disease progresses to end stage. The first symptom of kidney disease is often fluid retention or swelling of legs/arms and puffiness around eyes. Other symptoms of kidney disease include loss of sleep, fatigue, loss of appetite, upset stomach, weakness, headache or fever, itchy or dry skin, difficulty concentrating, elevated blood pressure, unexplained hypoglycemia or foamy appearance or blood in urine. That’s why it is vital to see a doctor regularly and get urine and blood tests done to check kidney function and assess disease at its early stage.

How one can know or diagnose kidney disease?

The common tests to diagnose kidney disease are urine tests (to check leakage of protein), blood tests (to check blood for waste products and kidney function), renal function test (to assess kidney filtering rate or capacity), kidney imaging (to assess the circulation within your kidney) or biopsy.

How to prevent kidney disease if someone is having diabetes?

Ways to prevent diabetic kidney disease are:

  • Keep the blood pressure, sugars and cholesterol under control.
  • Lose and maintain healthy body weight; if someone is overweight.
  • Quit smoking and avoid/limit the alcohol consumption.
  • Follow a healthy lifestyle i.e. eat healthy diet, exercise regularly and manage stress.
  • Keep an eye on your symptoms and monitor for a sign of change.
  • Get your kidney function check at least annually to detect early kidney damage.

DIABETES AND EYE DISEASE


  • How diabetes can affect eyes?
  • What are the risk factors of diabetes eye disease?
  • What are the common sign and symptoms of diabetes eye disease?
  • How can diabetic retinopathy be diagnosed?
  • What can be done to prevent diabetes eye disease?
  • Is diabetic retinopathy curable?
How diabetes can affect eyes?

Over time, diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy) which is the most common cause of vision loss or blindness among people with diabetes. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as blurry vision, cataracts (clouding of eye lens) and glaucoma (elevated eye pressure).

What are the risk factors of diabetes eye disease?

People who have poor blood sugar control, longer duration of diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, smoke, have kidney disease, or those women who develop diabetes during pregnancy, and also certain ethnicities can increase the risk for diabetic eye disease.

What are the common sign and symptoms of diabetes eye disease?

In early stages there may be no symptoms, which is why it is important to have regular eye exams. As retina problems worsen, symptoms if present, can include blurred or double vision, rings, flashes of light or blank spots in the field of vision, dark or floating spots, blotches in vision, pain or pressure in one or both of your eyes, trouble seeing things out of the corners of your eyes or sudden loss of vision.

How can diabetic retinopathy be diagnosed?

Diabetic retinopathy is detected during a detailed patient history and an eye examination that may include: visual acuity test (to check ability to see at various distances), pupil dilation (widen the eye area to check retina more clearly), ophthalmoscopy (examining the lens with special lens) or Fundus photography, fundus fluorescein Angiography (FFA) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to check circulation and measure thickness and swelling.

What can be done to prevent diabetes eye disease?

One can prevent eye disease by keeping the blood sugar levels under control and by making healthy lifestyle changes such as healthy eating and making physical activity a part of daily routine. One also needs to check blood sugars regularly, take medications as advised and do regular follow-up with the doctor. Keeping the cholesterol and blood pressure levels under control, taking your doctor’s help to quit smoking, paying attention to vision changes and to getting an annual eye test to look out for early signs are some ways to keep away from diabetes eye disease.

Is diabetic retinopathy curable?

No, once degeneration of eye and vision loss starts it cannot be reversed. However, it is possible to slow down the disease progression with early treatment and lifestyle changes.


DIABETES AND NERVE DISEASE


  • How diabetes affect nerves?
  • What are the causes of diabetes nerve disease?
  • What are the common sign and symptoms?
  • How one can diagnoses diabetes neuropathy or nerve disease?
  • How one can prevent diabetes neuropathy?
How diabetes affect nerves?

People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body called “diabetes neuropathy”. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, but diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet.

What are the causes of diabetes nerve disease?

People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. Other factors which can lead to neuropathy are abnormal cholesterol level, high blood pressure, vitamin B deficiency, damage or injury to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves, inflammation in the nerves, genetic factors, kidney or liver disease. And, lifestyle factors like smoking and alcohol abuse which can affect both nerves and blood vessels.

What are the common sign and symptoms?

Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. However, some may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, burning, weakness, reduced sensation or numbness (loss of feeling) in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can affect every organ system causing problems with digestion, respiratory function, urination, sexual response, and vision.

How one can diagnoses diabetes neuropathy or nerve disease?

Doctors can diagnose neuropathy on the basis of symptoms, medical history and a physical exam. During the exam, the doctor may check blood pressure, heart rate, muscle strength, reflexes, and sensitivity to position changes, temperature, or vibration. Some common tests are monofilament test, nerve conduction study, electromyography (EMG), quantitative sensory testing and Doppler or blood pressure.

How one can prevent diabetes neuropathy?

One can help prevent or delay diabetic neuropathy and its complications by keeping your blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol consistently well-controlled, inspecting and taking good care of your feet and following a healthy lifestyle.


DIABETES AND MENTAL HEALTH


  • How stress affect blood sugar levels?
  • How stress and diabetes are related?
  • What are the common sign and symptoms of stress?
  • How one can cope up or prevent diabetes related stress?
  • How one can deal with job and family stress?
  • Is it bad to opt for psychological counselling to deal with stress?
How stress affect blood sugar levels?

Each person will have a somewhat different response to stress. Our body consider stress as a threat, in order to keep us safe our body either prepare you to run away or fight it off. In stress the heart beat faster than normal, blood pressure goes up, breathing gets rapid or shallow, muscle get tensed and stress hormones released which cause sugars to shoot up.

This extra glucose or sugars in the body work as the fuel you need to fight or flee from stress. But in people with diabetes, this response does not work well; as insulin is not always able to let the extra glucose into the cells, so glucose levels shoot up in the blood.

How stress and diabetes are related?

We do our best to balance work, family and other stress in our life. If we add diabetes, it is natural to feel overwhelmed. That is because diabetes is there all the time. It’s no wonder that people who have diabetes tend to have more stress. Diabetes management is a constant process; so it is natural to sometimes feel angry, guilty, depressed, frustrated and helpless about having diabetes. But excessive stress, negative thoughts, feelings and attitudes about diabetes and taking care of yourself can be a major barrier to effective glucose control and a danger to one’s general health.

What are the common sign and symptoms of stress?

One can look out for the presence of following symptoms which could indicate stress:

  • Feelings of despair, sadness, anxiety, anger, irritable, helpless, low, or uneasy
  • A headache, panic attack or depression
  • Frequent self-criticism or crying spells
  • Trouble with memory and/or concentration
  • Rapid heartbeat, palpitations
  • Changes in appetite or weight
  • Stomach problems (vomiting, nausea, stomach-aches, diarrhea, constipation)
  • Muscle tension (stiffness in neck and shoulders)
  • Tight mouth or jaw or fist, teeth grinding
  • Difficulty swallowing or feeling of choking
How one can cope up or prevent diabetes related stress?

A first step to start is to accept diabetes as a challenge. Next, make a plan for how to live well with diabetes and manage stress. A stress management plan should include:

  • Good nutrition and balanced diet
  • Regular exercise and being active in day-to-day life
  • A way to improve attitude by thinking positively
  • Follow doctor’s advice of regular sugar monitoring and taking medications as advised
  • Training on relaxation techniques and stress management
  • A commitment to life-long learning and self-improvement

The best way to live with stress is to prevent it. When that is not possible, learn to reduce it as well as control how you respond to it. One can challenge self to learn how to relax, learning new ways of stress management and exercises, such as meditation or guided imagery or behaviour modification techniques.

How one can deal with job and family stress?

Creating a balance between work, personal and family commitments is the key. Time management helps you find the time for more of the things you want and need to do. It helps you decide which things are urgent and which can wait. Managing your time can make your life easier, less stressful, and more meaningful.

Is it bad to opt for psychological counselling to deal with stress?

No, it is perfectly normal to seek professional counselling to manage and reduce stress levels. There is nothing to hide or feel ashamed about.


DIABETES AND ORAL OR GUM DISEASE


  • How diabetes affect oral health?
  • What are the risk factors of oral problems?
  • What are the common symptoms of oral or gum disease?
  • What are the common oral health problems that occur due to diabetes?
  • How oral problems can prevented?
How diabetes affect oral health?

Diabetes is a disease that can affect the whole body, including the mouth. Dental care is particularly important for people with diabetes because they face a higher than normal risk of oral health problems due to poorly controlled blood sugars. The less well controlled the blood sugar, the more likely oral health problems will arise.

What are the risk factors of oral problems?

The common risk factors which ac lead to oral problems are smoking, hormonal changes, poor sugar control, certain medications that reduce the flow of protective saliva, genetic factors or other illness like AIDS or cancer.

What are the common symptoms of oral or gum disease?

The common symptoms of oral disease are bad breath that won’t go away, red or swollen gums, tender or bleeding gums, painful chewing, sensitive or loose teeth or receding gums or longer appearing teeth.

What are the common oral health problems that occur due to diabetes?

High blood sugar levels or diabetes over a period of time can lead to dry mouth. Lack of saliva in mouth cause dry feeling in mouth and tongue, cracked lips, pain in mouth or problems with chewing, eating, swallowing or talking. Dry mouth can further increase the risk of plaque formation and gum disease and lead to soreness, burning mouth, ulcers, infections, and tooth decay.

How oral problems can prevented?

Oral problems can be prevented by maintaining good oral hygiene, keeping blood sugars under control, eating healthy (avoid food which can deteriorate oral health like carbonated drinks, sugary, refined or processed food) and quitting smoke. One should also look for early sigh of gum disease by self-checking and routine visits to the dentist.


DIABETES AND SKIN PROBLEMS


  • How Diabetes can affect skin health?
  • What are the common skin problems people with diabetes can have?
How Diabetes can affect skin health?

Diabetes can affect every part of the body, and make people with diabetes more prone to developing skin conditions – some of which require quick attention as can be an indication of serious underlying health issues. Most of the skin conditions can be prevented or easily treated if caught early. But if not detected and cared for properly, a minor skin condition can turn into a serious problem with potentially severe consequences.

What are the common skin problems people with diabetes can have?

High blood sugars can lead to various skin problems. Some common skin problems are:

Acanthosis Nigricans: This condition causes dark patches of thickened, “velvety” skin to develop in areas where there are skin folds, such as the neck, groin, and underarms. The most frequent trigger of this problem is obesity and too much insulin in your bloodstream because the body is resisting insulin.

Localized Itching: People with diabetes often experience itchy and cracked skin, particularly in the lower legs, which can be caused by dryness, poor circulation, or infections.

Diabetic Dermopathy (DD): It is characterized by light brown scaly patches on the shins and legs, it is the most common skin condition associated with diabetes.

Bacterial and Fungal Infections: People with diabetes are often more prone to bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, including staphylococcus (staph) infections, yeast infections, and athlete’s foot.

Necrobiosis: A skin condition seen almost exclusively in people with diabetes or people who are insulin resistant, necrobiosis appears as a rash of purple spots, most often on the lower legs and feet.

Digital Sclerosis: This skin condition is marked by thickened, “waxy” skin, usually on the back of the hands, fingers, toes or back. The skin, particularly on the legs, can become thin and hairless, and prone to developing ulcers. The reduced blood flow can slow wound healing, allowing infections to develop.


DIABETES AND UROLOGICAL AND SEXUAL PROBLEMS


  • How diabetes can affect urological and sexual health?
  • What are the common risk factors of urological and sexual problems?
  • What are the common urological problems people with diabetes have?
  • How diabetes can cause sexual problems?
  • What are the common sexual problems in men with diabetes?
  • What are the common sexual problems in women with diabetes?
  • How diabetes-related urological and sexual problems can be prevented?
How diabetes can affect urological and sexual health?

Bladder symptoms and changes in sexual function are troublesome and common health problems as people age. Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased the severity of these problems. Sexual and urologic complications of diabetes occur because of the damage diabetes can cause to blood vessels and nerves. Men may have difficulty with erections or ejaculation. Women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication.

Urinary tract infections and bladder problems occur more often in people with diabetes. People who keep their diabetes under control can lower their risk of the early onset of these sexual and urologic problems.

What are the common risk factors of urological and sexual problems?

Diabetic neuropathy and related sexual and urologic problems appear to be more common in people who have poor blood glucose control, high blood pressure or cholesterol, overweight, smoke or physically inactive.

What are the common urological problems people with diabetes have?

Urologic problems that affect men and women with diabetes include bladder problems like over reactive bladder, increased frequency of urination, urine retention or leakage. People with diabetes are also more prone to urinary tract infections.

How diabetes can cause sexual problems?

Both men and women with diabetes can develop sexual problems because of damage to nerves and small blood vessels. The nerves that control internal organs are called autonomic nerves, which signal the body to digest food and circulate blood without a person having to think about it. The body’s response to sexual stimuli is involuntary, governed by autonomic nerve signals that increase blood flow to the genitals and cause smooth muscle tissue to relax. Damage to these autonomic nerves can hinder normal function. Reduced blood flow resulting from damage to blood vessels can also contribute to sexual dysfunction.

What are the common sexual problems in men with diabetes?

Erectile Dysfunction: It is the condition includes inability to have or sustain an erection required for sexual intercourse. Men who have diabetes are two to three times more likely to have erectile dysfunction at younger age than men who do not have diabetes.

Retrograde Ejaculation: It occurs when internal muscles, called sphincters, do not function normally. In this condition part or all of a man’s semen goes into the bladder instead of out the tip of the penis during ejaculation. In bladder semen mixes with urine, and leaves the body during urination.

What are the common sexual problems in women with diabetes?

For women, the most common sexual problem that comes with type 2 diabetes is vaginal dryness. Women who have diabetes have increased rates of vaginal infections and inflammation, both of which can make sex painful. Another issue can be nerve damage to the bladder which cause incontinence making sex embarrassing. Women with diabetes are also more likely to have frequent urinary tract infections, which can also make sex painful and uncomfortable.

How diabetes-related urological and sexual problems can be prevented?

People with diabetes can lower their risk of sexual and urologic problems by keeping their blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels close to the target numbers their health care provider recommends. Being physically active, eating healthy and maintaining a healthy weight can also help prevent the long-term complications of diabetes. And, for those who smoke, quitting will lower the risk of developing sexual and urologic problems due to nerve damage and also lower the risk for other health problems related to diabetes.

diabee-logo-small

Diabee is your ever-present Diabetes Coach, helping you keep your diabetes always under control.

Subscribe to our Newsletter

Copyright 2017 by HealthCare atHOME India. All rights reserved.